Liberation of Mind and Body: Early Modern Europe, 1543 to 1815
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Lost in the Stars
The so-called first Scientific Revolution created modern astronomy and physics.
From the Salons to the Streets
The Enlightement spread scientific attitudes through much of Western culture.
The State is He (or She)
Absolutism, whether justified by Christian divine-right or the Englightenment, flourished as the dominant political system.
(Prosperous) People Power
A few elites established republican representation and constitutional limitations, especially in the Netherlands, Great Britain and the new United States of America.
The Declaration of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity
The ideas of the Enlightement broke free in the French Revolution.
Blood and Empires
Napoleon's successful imperial takeover of Revolutionary France, and then most of Europe, provoked warfare until his ultimate defeat.