Primary Sources for Chapter 13
Rejections of Democracy: The Interwar Years and World War II,
1917 to 1945
Freud on Civilization: The founder of psychiatry discusses the appeal of primitivism to many in modern civilization.
Content Questions: How does Freud explain the attitude that many blame civilization for their misery?
Analysis Question: What role does the desire for happiness play in his analysis?
Evaluative Question: How does this piece reflect the worries common at the time about the future of civilization ?
Letter from Gorky to Stalin: The Russian author writes to the Soviet leader about atheism and religion.
Content Question: What Gorky’s concerns and suggestions about the problem of religion?
Analysis Question: In what context does Gorky place “progress”?
Evaluative Questions: Would more knowledge about religious history help the atheist argument or the believer’s faith?
On The Eve Of Historic Dandi March: The spiritual leader explains how his call for "Swaraj" (self-rule for India) can continue even after his predicted arrest for the march to protest the British monopoly on salt production and commerce.
Content Question: What measures does Gandhi suggest Indians undertake to resist British colonial rule in India?
Analysis Question: How does Gandhi place his suggestions in a religious context?
Evaluative Question: How realistic were his suggestions to his fellow Indians?
What is Fascism: The leader of Italy and founder of fascism presents his own definition.
Content Question: What the key components of fascist ideology and practice?
Analysis Questions: How does fascism relate to humanity, class, and the state?
Evaluative Question: How does fascism compare to socialism or liberal democracy?
Hitler’s speech of 18 September 1922: The Führer of the Nazis and future Chancellor of Germany speaks out against the leaders of Weimar Germany during the inflation crisis.
Content Questions: Whom does Hitler blame for the current problems? What are his recommendations to solve them?
Analysis Question: How realistic are his accusations and solutions?
Evaluative Questions: How did people ignore his extreme statements in favor of his more moderate ones given elsewhere?
War Speech: A member of the new British government, although not yet Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, offers his explanation for going to war.
Content Question: For what does Churchill say the British are fighting?
Analysis Question: How does Churchill explain British readiness for the conflict?
Evaluative Questions: How does society balance striving for peace and going to war?